3.9 指示代词
 
 1) 指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做代词,例如:
      单数          复数
限定词:This girl is Mary.  Those men are my
               teachers.
代词: This is Mary.     Those are my
               teachers.

 2) 指示代词的句法功能;
  a. 作主语
    This is the way to do it.
    这事儿就该这样做。
  
   b. 作宾语
    I like this better than that.
    我喜欢这个甚至那个。

   c. 作主语补语
    My point is this.
    我的观点就是如此。

   d. 作介词宾语
    I don't say no to that.
    我并未拒绝那个。
    There is no fear of that.
    那并不可怕。
 说明1:
  指示代词在作主语时可指物也可指人,但作其他句子成分时只能指物,不能指人,例如:
 (对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。( that作主语,指人)
 (对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。(this作限定词)
 (错)He is going to marry this. (this作宾语时不能指人)
 (对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this指物,可作宾语)

 说明2:
  That和those可作定语从句的先行词,但this和 these不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有those可指人,试比较:
 (对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。
 (对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those指人)
 (错) He admired that who danced well. (that作宾语时不能指人)
 (对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those指人)
 (对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those指物)





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