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On July 21st, 1925, the so-called "Monkey
Trial" ended in Dayton, Tennessee, with John T.
convicted of violating state law for teaching
Darwin's Theory of Evolution. (The conviction was
On this date:
In 1831, Belgium became independent as Leopold
the First was proclaimed King of the Belgians.
In 1861, the first
Battle of Bull Run was fought at Manassas,
Virginia, resulting in a Confederate victory.
In 1899, author Ernest
Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois;
poet Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio.
In 1944, American
forces landed on Guam during World War Two.
In 1949, the US
Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.
In 1954, France
surrendered North Vietnam to the Communists.
In 1955, during
the Geneva summit, President Eisenhower presented
his "open skies" proposal under which
the U-S and the Soviet Union would trade
information on each other's military facilities.
In 1961, Captain
Virgil "Gus" Grissom became the second
American to rocket into a sub-orbital pattern
around the Earth, flying aboard the "Liberty
"Apollo Eleven" astronauts Neil
Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin
blasted off from the moon aboard the lunar
In 1980, draft
registration began in the United States for 19-
and 20-year-old men.
Ten years ago: A
day after Supreme Court Justice William J.
Brennan announced his retirement, President Bush
convened a meeting with key administration
officials to begin finding a replacement.
Five years ago: At
a 16-nation conference in London, the United
States and NATO allies warned Bosnian Serbs that
further attacks on UN safe havens would draw a
"substantial and decisive response."
One year ago: Navy
divers found the bodies of John F. Kennedy
Junior, his wife, Carolyn, and sister-in-law,
Lauren Bessette, in the wreckage of Kennedy's
plane in the Atlantic Ocean off Martha's
Vineyard. Advertising executive David Ogilvy died
in Bonnes, France, at age 88.
"This is the final
test of a gentleman: His respect for those who
can be of no possible service to him."
William Lyon Phelps, American educator