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On November 12th, 1942, the World War Two naval
Battle of Guadalcanal began. (The Americans ended
up winning a major victory over the Japanese.)
In 1920, baseball got its first "czar"
as Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis was elected
commissioner of the American and National
representatives of nine nations gathered for the
start of the Washington Conference for Limitation
In 1927, Josef
became the undisputed ruler of the Soviet Union
as Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Communist
In 1929, Grace
Kelly -- the future movie star and Princess of
Monaco -- was born in Philadelphia.
In 1948, former
Japanese premier Hideki Tojo and several other
World War Two Japanese leaders were sentenced to
death by a war crimes tribunal.
In 1954, Ellis
Island closed after processing more than 20
million immigrants since opening in New York
Harbor in 1892.
In 1975, Supreme
Court Justice William O. Douglas retired because
of failing health, ending a record
In 1980, the US
space probe "Voyager One" came within
77-thousand miles of Saturn.
In 1982, Yuri V.
Andropov was elected to succeed the late Leonid
I. Brezhnev as general secretary of the Soviet
Communist Party's Central Committee.
In 1993, former
Nixon White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman
died in Santa Barbara, California, at age 67.
Ten years ago:
Japanese Emperor Akihito formally assumed the
Chrysanthemum Throne. Actress Eve Arden died in
Beverly Hills, California, at age 82.
Five years ago:
Israel's ruling Labor Party unanimously approved
Shimon Peres as its new leader, replacing slain
Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The space shuttle
"Atlantis" blasted off on a mission to
dock with the Russian space station
One year ago:
President Clinton signed a sweeping measure
knocking down Depression-era barriers and
allowing banks, investment firms and insurance
companies to sell each other's products. An
earthquake struck western Turkey, killing at
least 834 people.
"Money is always
there but the pockets change; it is not in the
same pockets after a change, and that is all
there is to say about money."
Gertrude Stein, American author (1874-1946).